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辟謠!世衛組織用事實駁擊寨卡謠言

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2016-03-05  瀏覽次數:68
核心提示:  隨著近期中國大陸確認多例輸入性寨卡病毒感染病例,對于寨卡病毒及小頭癥的關注和討論也逐漸增多。面對謠言,更需要了解的是
   隨著近期中國大陸確認多例輸入性寨卡病毒感染病例,對于寨卡病毒及小頭癥的關注和討論也逐漸增多。面對謠言,更需要了解的是事實!

  

  事實一 疫苗并未導致嬰兒小頭癥

  無論是最初在2013年至2014年在法屬波利尼西亞,還是最近在巴西東北部,都沒有證據顯示,所觀測到的小頭癥病例數增多與任何疫苗有關聯。

  對2014年發表的文獻進行的廣泛審查表明,沒有證據顯示妊娠期接種的任何疫苗導致了出生缺陷。為世界衛生組織(世衛組織)在疫苗安全問題上提供獨立科學咨詢的全球疫苗安全咨詢委員會也在2014年得出類似結論。

  此外,國家監管機構負責確保向公眾發放的疫苗等產品獲得適當評估,并符合國際質量和安全標準。世衛組織協助各國加強國家監管體系。

  事實二 殺蟲劑蚊蠅醚并不導致小頭癥

  蚊蠅醚(又名吡丙醚)是世衛組織推薦的12種殺滅蚊子幼蟲的藥劑之一。世衛組織專家團隊最近審查了蚊蠅醚的毒理學數據,并未發現有證據顯示此種殺蟲劑可影響妊娠或胚胎發育。美國環境保護局和歐盟的調查人員也分別在對該產品的評估中得出相似結論。

  殺幼蟲劑是公共衛生人員手中的一件利器。尤其是,在沒有自來水供應的城市和鄉鎮,人們習慣于在室外容器中儲存飲用水,這些水源以及垃圾、花盆和輪胎中的積水是蚊子理想的繁殖場所。

  人們經常在儲水容器中使用蚊蠅醚等殺幼蟲劑殺滅蚊子幼蟲。若有人飲用經蚊蠅醚處理的容器中的水,就可能會接觸到殺幼蟲劑,但接觸劑量很低,因此并不損害人體健康。而且,人體攝入的任何殺幼蟲劑的90%至95%可在48小時內經尿液排出體外。自蚊蠅醚于上世紀90年代末投入使用以來,從未發現它與小頭癥存在聯系。

  事實三 寨卡疫情與轉基因蚊子并無關聯

  沒有證據顯示巴西寨卡病毒病或小頭癥是由轉基因蚊子導致的。利用轉基因蚊子指的是修改雄蚊的基因,導致其與雌蚊交配后的幼蟲后代無法存活。這是一種控制蚊群的手段。

  世衛組織鼓勵受寨卡病毒影響的國家及其合作伙伴作為最直接的防御手段強化使用現有控蚊措施,同時謹慎試驗可能在將來應用的控蚊新方法。

  事實四 絕育的雄蚊并不助長寨卡傳播

  正在開發的一項遏制寨卡病毒的技術是,在環境中大量釋放經過低劑量輻射的絕育雄蚊。絕育雄蚊與雌蚊交配后,雌蚊繁殖的蟲卵無法存活。在控制農業害蟲領域,這種方法已被大規模成功應用。沒有證據顯示這項技術與小頭癥病例增多或其它人體異常與缺陷相關。

  世衛組織鼓勵受寨卡病毒影響的國家及其合作伙伴作為最直接的防御手段強化使用現有控蚊措施,同時謹慎試驗可能在將來應用的控蚊新方法。

  事實五 控蚊細菌沒導致寨卡進一步傳播

  有些地方使用沃爾巴克氏菌等細菌控制蚊群,這類細菌并不感染人類或其它哺乳動物。60%的常見昆蟲(如蝴蝶和果蠅)體內有沃爾巴克氏菌。澳大利亞、巴西、印度尼西亞和越南等地釋放了攜帶沃爾巴克氏菌的蚊子,以協助控制登革熱(登革熱由傳播寨卡病毒的同一種蚊子傳播)。雌蚊與攜帶這種細菌的雄蚊交配后,蚊卵不能孵化,從而達到遏制蚊群的目標。

  事實六 養魚協助遏制寨卡病毒

  一些受寨卡和登革熱病毒影響的國家正利用生物學手段綜合控蚊。例如,薩爾瓦多在本國漁民大力支持下,在盛水容器中放養了可以吞食幼蟲的魚類。

  

  Dispelling Rumours Around Zika and Microcephaly

  Truth No.1: No evidence that vaccines cause microcephaly in babies.There is no evidence linking any vaccine to the increases in microcephaly cases that were observed first in French Polynesia during the 2013-2014 outbreak and more recently in northeastern Brazil. No evidence that vaccines cause microcephaly in babies.

  An extensive review of the literature published in 2014 found no evidence that any vaccine administered during pregnancy resulted in birth defects. The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, which provides independent scientific advice to the World Health Organization (WHO) on vaccine safety issues, reached a similar conclusion in 2014.

  In addition, national regulatory agencies are responsible for ensuring that products released for public distribution, such as vaccines, are evaluated properly and meet international standards of quality and safety. WHO assists countries in strengthening their national regulatory systems.

  Truth No.2: No evidence that pyriproxyfen insecticide causes microcephaly.A team of WHO scientists recently reviewed data on the toxicology of pyriproxyfen, one of 12 larvicides that WHO recommends to reduce mosquito populations. It found no evidence that the larvicide affects the course of pregnancy or the development of a fetus. The US Environmental Protection Agency and EU investigators reached a similar conclusion when they carried out a separate review of the product.

  Larvicides are an important weapon in the public health practitioner’s arsenal. Especially in cities and towns with no piped water, people tend to store drinking water in outdoor containers. These sources of water, as well as standing water that may collect in garbage, flower pots and tyres, serve as ideal breeding grounds for mosquitoes.

  Larvicides such as pyriproxyfen are often used in containers wher people store water to kill the mosquito in its larval stage. When people drink water from containers that have been treated with pyriproxyfen, they are exposed to the larvicide – but in tiny amounts that do not harm their health. Moreover, 90% - 95% of any larvicide ingested is excreted into the urine within 48 hours. This product has been used since the late-1990s without being linked to microcephaly.

  Truth No.3:No evidence that the Zika outbreak and unusual increase in microcephaly cases in Brazil is linked to recent releases of genetically modified mosquitoes in Brazil.There is no evidence that Zika virus disease or microcephaly in Brazil is caused by genetically modified mosquitoes. In genetically modified mosquitoes, the genes of male mosquitoes are modified. Because of the modification, when they mate with female mosquitoes, their larval offspring cannot survive. This practice is designed to control mosquito populations.

  WHO encourages affected countries and their partners to boost the use of current mosquito control interventions as the most immediate line of defence, and to judiciously test the new approaches that could be applied in future.

  Truth No.4:No evidence that sterilized male mosquitoes contribute to the spread of Zika.A technique being developed to stop Zika is the mass release of male mosquitoes that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation. When a sterile male mates, the female’s eggs do not survive. The technique has been successfully used, on a large scale, to control insect pests that threaten agriculture. There is no evidence that the technique has been associated with increases in microcephaly cases or other human anomalies or defects.

  WHO encourages affected countries and their partners to boost the use of current mosquito control interventions as the most immediate line of defense, and to judiciously test the new approaches that could be applied in future.

  Truth No.5:Bacteria used to control the male mosquito population are not spreading Zika further.Bacteria such as Wolbachia bacteria are used to control mosquito populations; they do not infect humans or other mammals. Wolbachia bacteria are found in 60% of common insects, including butterflies and fruit flies. Mosquitoes carrying Wolbachia bacteria have been released in several places, including Australia, Brazil, Indonesia and Viet Nam, to help control dengue (which is transmitted by the same mosquito that transmits Zika). When females mate with males carrying the bacteria, the eggs do not hatch, thus supressing mosquito populations.

  Truth No.6:Fish can help stop Zika.Some countries affected by Zika and dengue are using biological methods as part of an integrated approach to mosquito control. El Salvador, for example, with strong support from fishing communities, is introducing larvae-devouring fish into water storage containers.

 
 
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